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Yellow pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus bargibanti), also known as Bargibant's Pygmy Seahorse. They are found from Southern tropical Japan, throughout the Philippines, Indonesia, east to Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Fiji, Vanuatu and the Great Bar
1116-39721 - Yellow pygmy seahorse (Hippocampus bargibanti), also known as Bargibant's Pygmy Seahorse. They are found from Southern tropical Japan, throughout the Philippines, Indonesia, east to Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Fiji, Vanuatu and the Great Bar
Boat and iceberg, ice floe in the Southern Ocean, 180 miles north of East Antarctica, Antarctica
817-450378 - Boat and iceberg, ice floe in the Southern Ocean, 180 miles north of East Antarctica, Antarctica
Adventure research ship Spirit of Enderby amongst ice bergs in the ice floe in the southern ocean, 180 miles north of East Antarctica, Antarctica
817-450376 - Adventure research ship Spirit of Enderby amongst ice bergs in the ice floe in the southern ocean, 180 miles north of East Antarctica, Antarctica
Boat approaching iceberg, ice floe in the southern ocean, 180 miles north of East Antarctica, Antarctica
817-450373 - Boat approaching iceberg, ice floe in the southern ocean, 180 miles north of East Antarctica, Antarctica
Great Ocean Road, Loch Ard Gorge, cliffs and coastal landscape, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
832-366604 - Great Ocean Road, Loch Ard Gorge, cliffs and coastal landscape, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
Great Ocean Road, Castle Cove, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
832-366596 - Great Ocean Road, Castle Cove, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
Great Ocean Road, The Twelve Apostles, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
832-366608 - Great Ocean Road, The Twelve Apostles, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
Great Ocean Road, Castle cove, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
832-366611 - Great Ocean Road, Castle cove, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
Great Ocean Road, cliffs and coastal landscape next to the Twelve Apostles, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
832-366603 - Great Ocean Road, cliffs and coastal landscape next to the Twelve Apostles, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
Great Ocean Road, helicopter flight over the cliffs and coastal landscape next to the Twelve Apostles, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
832-366610 - Great Ocean Road, helicopter flight over the cliffs and coastal landscape next to the Twelve Apostles, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
Great Ocean Road, The Twelve Apostles, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
832-366597 - Great Ocean Road, The Twelve Apostles, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
Great Ocean Road, The Twelve Apostles, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
832-366598 - Great Ocean Road, The Twelve Apostles, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
Great Ocean Road, helicopter flight over the cliffs and coastal landscape next to the Twelve Apostles, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
832-366609 - Great Ocean Road, helicopter flight over the cliffs and coastal landscape next to the Twelve Apostles, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
Great Ocean Road, The Twelve Apostles, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
832-366591 - Great Ocean Road, The Twelve Apostles, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
Great Ocean Road, The Razorback limestone cliff, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
832-366607 - Great Ocean Road, The Razorback limestone cliff, Southern Ocean, Victoria, Australia
Antactic Dream navigation on rough seas near Cape Horn, Tierra del Fuego, Drake Passage, Antarctic Ocean, Patagonia, Chile, South America
832-87198 - Antactic Dream navigation on rough seas near Cape Horn, Tierra del Fuego, Drake Passage, Antarctic Ocean, Patagonia, Chile, South America
Antactic Dream navigation on rough seas near Cape Horn, Tierra del Fuego, Drake Passage, Antarctic Ocean, Patagonia, Chile, South America
832-87199 - Antactic Dream navigation on rough seas near Cape Horn, Tierra del Fuego, Drake Passage, Antarctic Ocean, Patagonia, Chile, South America
Arrival at Long beach, southern Great Keppel Island, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Queensland, Australia
1113-46249 - Arrival at Long beach, southern Great Keppel Island, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Queensland, Australia
Long beach, southern Great Keppel Island, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Queensland, Australia
1113-46246 - Long beach, southern Great Keppel Island, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, UNESCO World Heritage Site, Queensland, Australia
Hourglass Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus cruciger, Male Dolphin breaching at great speed, Drake Passage, Southern Ocean. Males of this species can be identified by the huge hooked dorsal fin and post-anal keel.
917-272 - Hourglass Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus cruciger, Male Dolphin breaching at great speed, Drake Passage, Southern Ocean. Males of this species can be identified by the huge hooked dorsal fin and post-anal keel.
Hourglass Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus cruciger, Male Dolphin breaching at great speed, Drake Passage, Southern Ocean. Males of this species can be identified by the huge hooked dorsal fin and post-anal keel.
917-271 - Hourglass Dolphin, Lagenorhynchus cruciger, Male Dolphin breaching at great speed, Drake Passage, Southern Ocean. Males of this species can be identified by the huge hooked dorsal fin and post-anal keel.
Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
979-4380 - Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
Adult Black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) on the wing in the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica, Southern Ocean. The Black-browed Albatross is a large seabird of the albatross family Diomedeidae. It is an endangered species on the IUCN Red List, but is the most widespread and common albatross. The Black-browed Albatross is a medium-sized albatross, at 80-95 cm (32-38 in) long with a 200-235 cm (79-93 in) wingspan and an average weight of 3.7 kg (8.2 lbs). They can have a natural lifespan of over 70 years.
979-5010 - Adult Black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) on the wing in the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica, Southern Ocean. The Black-browed Albatross is a large seabird of the albatross family Diomedeidae. It is an endangered species on the IUCN Red List, but is the most widespread and common albatross. The Black-browed Albatross is a medium-sized albatross, at 80-95 cm (32-38 in) long with a 200-235 cm (79-93 in) wingspan and an average weight of 3.7 kg (8.2 lbs). They can have a natural lifespan of over 70 years.
An adult Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica)  in the Antarctic peninsula in the southern ocean. This skua is often referred to as Antarctic Skua (or vice versa); the taxonomy of Skuas is still a matter of dispute. Other names (probably owing to the high level of hybridization in this species) include Southern Great Skua, Southern Skua or Subantarctic Skua.
979-4298 - An adult Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica) in the Antarctic peninsula in the southern ocean. This skua is often referred to as Antarctic Skua (or vice versa); the taxonomy of Skuas is still a matter of dispute. Other names (probably owing to the high level of hybridization in this species) include Southern Great Skua, Southern Skua or Subantarctic Skua.
Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
979-4838 - Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
Heavy storm clouds and ice choked waters surround Point Wild on Elephant Island. Elephant Island is an ice-covered, mountainous island off the coast of Antarctica in the outer reaches of the South Shetland Islands in the Southern Ocean. It lies 1,290 kilometres (800 mi) west-southwest of South Georgia, 940 kilometres (580 mi) south of the Falkland Islands, and 890 kilometres (550 mi) southeast of Cape Horn. It is within the Antarctic claims of Argentina, Chile and the UK. Point Wild is named after Frank Wild, who served as Shackleton's second-in-command on Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-1916). As second-in-command, Wild was left in charge of 21 men on desolate Elephant Island as Shackleton and a crew of 5 made their epic rescue mission to South Georgia aboard a lifeboat. From 24 April to 30 August 1916 Wild and his crew waited on Elephant Island, surviving on a diet of seal, penguin and seaweed. On the point is a monument dedicated to the Chilean captain Luis Pardo who rescued Wild and his men on August 30, 1916 in the Chilean vessel Yelcho. Elephant Island?s name can be attributed to both its elephant head-like appearance and the sighting of elephant seals by Captain George Powell in 1821, one of the earliest sightings of the island. Its weather is normally foggy with much snow. Additionally, winds can reach speeds up to 100 miles per hour on the frigid island.
979-4952 - Heavy storm clouds and ice choked waters surround Point Wild on Elephant Island. Elephant Island is an ice-covered, mountainous island off the coast of Antarctica in the outer reaches of the South Shetland Islands in the Southern Ocean. It lies 1,290 kilometres (800 mi) west-southwest of South Georgia, 940 kilometres (580 mi) south of the Falkland Islands, and 890 kilometres (550 mi) southeast of Cape Horn. It is within the Antarctic claims of Argentina, Chile and the UK. Point Wild is named after Frank Wild, who served as Shackleton's second-in-command on Shackleton's Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914-1916). As second-in-command, Wild was left in charge of 21 men on desolate Elephant Island as Shackleton and a crew of 5 made their epic rescue mission to South Georgia aboard a lifeboat. From 24 April to 30 August 1916 Wild and his crew waited on Elephant Island, surviving on a diet of seal, penguin and seaweed. On the point is a monument dedicated to the Chilean captain Luis Pardo who rescued Wild and his men on August 30, 1916 in the Chilean vessel Yelcho. Elephant Island?s name can be attributed to both its elephant head-like appearance and the sighting of elephant seals by Captain George Powell in 1821, one of the earliest sightings of the island. Its weather is normally foggy with much snow. Additionally, winds can reach speeds up to 100 miles per hour on the frigid island.
Weddell Seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) hauled out on ice near the Antarctic Peninsula, southern Ocean. This is the most southerly breeding seal in the world, south to 78 degrees south, inhabiting both pack and fast ice. A weddell seal can grow 2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in) long and weigh between 400 to 600 kg (880 to 1,300 lb). It is estimated that there are approximately 800,000 individuals today. It is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. It is the only species in the genus Leptonychotes. Recorded dive depths to 750 m for 73 minutes. On average, the Weddell Seal lives for 20 years, compared to an average life expectancy of 40 years for most other seals. This is because the Weddell Seal winters under the Antarctic sea ice adjacent to continental Antarctica where it must constantly maintain breathing holes by scraping the ice with its teeth. This has the effect of wearing down its teeth over time. Once a Weddell Seal's teeth have worn down to a certain level, the seal is unable to eat and eventually starves to death. The Weddell Seal lives further south than any other mammal, inhabiting the waters of McMurdo Sound, 1,300 km (810 mi) from the South Pole. The Weddell Seal is protected by the Antarctic Treaty and the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals.
979-4596 - Weddell Seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) hauled out on ice near the Antarctic Peninsula, southern Ocean. This is the most southerly breeding seal in the world, south to 78 degrees south, inhabiting both pack and fast ice. A weddell seal can grow 2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in) long and weigh between 400 to 600 kg (880 to 1,300 lb). It is estimated that there are approximately 800,000 individuals today. It is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. It is the only species in the genus Leptonychotes. Recorded dive depths to 750 m for 73 minutes. On average, the Weddell Seal lives for 20 years, compared to an average life expectancy of 40 years for most other seals. This is because the Weddell Seal winters under the Antarctic sea ice adjacent to continental Antarctica where it must constantly maintain breathing holes by scraping the ice with its teeth. This has the effect of wearing down its teeth over time. Once a Weddell Seal's teeth have worn down to a certain level, the seal is unable to eat and eventually starves to death. The Weddell Seal lives further south than any other mammal, inhabiting the waters of McMurdo Sound, 1,300 km (810 mi) from the South Pole. The Weddell Seal is protected by the Antarctic Treaty and the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals.
Young southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) on the beach at South Georgia in the Southern Ocean. There is much mock-fighting among males on the beach (breeding season is actually over and the truly large bulls have left to forage). The Southern Elephant Seal is one of two species of elephant seal. It is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. While the females average about 680 kg (1,500 lb) and 3 m (10 feet) long, the bulls average around 3636 kg (8,000 lb) and 4.2 m (13 feet) long. The record bull, shot in Possession Bay, South Georgia in 1913, was 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and 6.9 m (22.5 feet) long. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals. The largest sub-population is in the South Atlantic with more than 400,000 individuals including approximately 350,000 seals in South Georgia, the other breeding colonies located on the Falkland Islands, Antarctica, and Valdes Peninsula in Argentina (the only continental breeding population). Thanks to satellite tracking, it was found that the animals spend very little time on the surface, usually a few minutes for oxygen. They dive repeatedly, each time for more than twenty minutes, to hunt their prey; squid and fish, between 400 and 1000 m deep. The diving records were recorded in nearly two hours for the duration and more than 1400 m in depth.
979-4637 - Young southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) on the beach at South Georgia in the Southern Ocean. There is much mock-fighting among males on the beach (breeding season is actually over and the truly large bulls have left to forage). The Southern Elephant Seal is one of two species of elephant seal. It is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. While the females average about 680 kg (1,500 lb) and 3 m (10 feet) long, the bulls average around 3636 kg (8,000 lb) and 4.2 m (13 feet) long. The record bull, shot in Possession Bay, South Georgia in 1913, was 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and 6.9 m (22.5 feet) long. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals. The largest sub-population is in the South Atlantic with more than 400,000 individuals including approximately 350,000 seals in South Georgia, the other breeding colonies located on the Falkland Islands, Antarctica, and Valdes Peninsula in Argentina (the only continental breeding population). Thanks to satellite tracking, it was found that the animals spend very little time on the surface, usually a few minutes for oxygen. They dive repeatedly, each time for more than twenty minutes, to hunt their prey; squid and fish, between 400 and 1000 m deep. The diving records were recorded in nearly two hours for the duration and more than 1400 m in depth.
A small pod of about 25 "Type B" killer whales (Orcinus orca) at 67ø 30.3?S  67ø 58.4?W south of the Antarctic Circle near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO Killer whales are found in all oceans and most seas, including (unusually for cetaceans) the Mediterranean and Arabian Seas. These animals are also often called killer whales, but this is a misnomer as this is actually the largest member of the dolphin family.  The Antarctic population of killer whales is estimated at 70,000?80,000.
979-9179 - A small pod of about 25 "Type B" killer whales (Orcinus orca) at 67ø 30.3?S 67ø 58.4?W south of the Antarctic Circle near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO Killer whales are found in all oceans and most seas, including (unusually for cetaceans) the Mediterranean and Arabian Seas. These animals are also often called killer whales, but this is a misnomer as this is actually the largest member of the dolphin family. The Antarctic population of killer whales is estimated at 70,000?80,000.
Pregnant female southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) giving birth on the beach near the abandoned whaling station at Stromness Bay on South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The southern elephant seal is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals including approximately 350,000 elephant seals in South Georgia.
979-9286 - Pregnant female southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) giving birth on the beach near the abandoned whaling station at Stromness Bay on South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The southern elephant seal is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals including approximately 350,000 elephant seals in South Georgia.
Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
979-4354 - Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
979-4823 - Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
Pregnant female southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) giving birth on the beach near the abandoned whaling station at Stromness Bay on South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The southern elephant seal is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals including approximately 350,000 elephant seals in South Georgia.
979-9287 - Pregnant female southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) giving birth on the beach near the abandoned whaling station at Stromness Bay on South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The southern elephant seal is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals including approximately 350,000 elephant seals in South Georgia.
Young southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) on the beach at South Georgia in the Southern Ocean. There is much mock-fighting among males on the beach (breeding season is actually over and the truly large bulls have left to forage). The Southern Elephant Seal is one of two species of elephant seal. It is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. While the females average about 680 kg (1,500 lb) and 3 m (10 feet) long, the bulls average around 3636 kg (8,000 lb) and 4.2 m (13 feet) long. The record bull, shot in Possession Bay, South Georgia in 1913, was 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and 6.9 m (22.5 feet) long. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals. The largest sub-population is in the South Atlantic with more than 400,000 individuals including approximately 350,000 seals in South Georgia, the other breeding colonies located on the Falkland Islands, Antarctica, and Valdes Peninsula in Argentina (the only continental breeding population). Thanks to satellite tracking, it was found that the animals spend very little time on the surface, usually a few minutes for oxygen. They dive repeatedly, each time for more than twenty minutes, to hunt their prey; squid and fish, between 400 and 1000 m deep. The diving records were recorded in nearly two hours for the duration and more than 1400 m in depth.
979-4650 - Young southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) on the beach at South Georgia in the Southern Ocean. There is much mock-fighting among males on the beach (breeding season is actually over and the truly large bulls have left to forage). The Southern Elephant Seal is one of two species of elephant seal. It is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. While the females average about 680 kg (1,500 lb) and 3 m (10 feet) long, the bulls average around 3636 kg (8,000 lb) and 4.2 m (13 feet) long. The record bull, shot in Possession Bay, South Georgia in 1913, was 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and 6.9 m (22.5 feet) long. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals. The largest sub-population is in the South Atlantic with more than 400,000 individuals including approximately 350,000 seals in South Georgia, the other breeding colonies located on the Falkland Islands, Antarctica, and Valdes Peninsula in Argentina (the only continental breeding population). Thanks to satellite tracking, it was found that the animals spend very little time on the surface, usually a few minutes for oxygen. They dive repeatedly, each time for more than twenty minutes, to hunt their prey; squid and fish, between 400 and 1000 m deep. The diving records were recorded in nearly two hours for the duration and more than 1400 m in depth.
Adult leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) hauled out on ice floe near the Antarctic Peninsula, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The leopard seal is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the Southern Elephant Seal), and is near the top of the Antarctic food chain.
979-7408 - Adult leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) hauled out on ice floe near the Antarctic Peninsula, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The leopard seal is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the Southern Elephant Seal), and is near the top of the Antarctic food chain.
Adult Black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) on the wing in the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica, Southern Ocean. The Black-browed Albatross is a large seabird of the albatross family Diomedeidae. It is an endangered species on the IUCN Red List, but is the most widespread and common albatross. The Black-browed Albatross is a medium-sized albatross, at 80-95 cm (32-38 in) long with a 200-235 cm (79-93 in) wingspan and an average weight of 3.7 kg (8.2 lbs). They can have a natural lifespan of over 70 years.
979-5009 - Adult Black-browed albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys) on the wing in the Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica, Southern Ocean. The Black-browed Albatross is a large seabird of the albatross family Diomedeidae. It is an endangered species on the IUCN Red List, but is the most widespread and common albatross. The Black-browed Albatross is a medium-sized albatross, at 80-95 cm (32-38 in) long with a 200-235 cm (79-93 in) wingspan and an average weight of 3.7 kg (8.2 lbs). They can have a natural lifespan of over 70 years.
An adult Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica) with a stolen penguin egg on South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. This skua is often referred to as Antarctic Skua (or vice versa); the taxonomy of Skuas is still a matter of dispute. Other names (probably owing to the high level of hybridization in this species) include Southern Great Skua, Southern Skua or Subantarctic Skua.
979-4292 - An adult Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica) with a stolen penguin egg on South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. This skua is often referred to as Antarctic Skua (or vice versa); the taxonomy of Skuas is still a matter of dispute. Other names (probably owing to the high level of hybridization in this species) include Southern Great Skua, Southern Skua or Subantarctic Skua.
Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
979-4363 - Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) colony on the Antarctic Peninsula. There are an estimated 2 million breeding pairs of chinstrap penguins in the Antarctic peninsula region alone, perhaps as many as 7.5 million breeding pairs in all of Antarctica. Their name derives from the narrow black band under their heads which makes it appear as if they are wearing black helmets, making them one of the most easily identified types of penguin. Other names for them are "Ringed Penguins", "Bearded Penguins", and "Stonecracker Penguins" due to their harsh call. They grow to 68 cm (27 in). The average adult weight of a Chinstrap Penguin is 4.5 kg (10 lbs). Weight can range from 3 to 6 kg (6.6-13.2 lbs), with males being slightly larger and weight varying based on where the penguin is in the breeding cycle. Their diet consists of krill, shrimp, and fish. On land they build circular nests from stones, and lay two eggs, which are incubated by both the male and the female for shifts of five to ten days. They can also breed on icebergs, though they prefer non-icy conditions. The chicks hatch after about 35 days, and have fluffy gray backs and white fronts. The chicks stay in the nest for 20?30 days before they go to join a creche. At around 50?60 days old, they moult, gaining their adult plumage and go to sea. The Chinstrap Penguin was first described by German naturalist Forster in 1781. Its specific epithet was often seen as antarctica, however a 2002 review determined the genus Pygoscelis was masculine, and hence the correct binomial name is Pygoscelis antarcticus.
979-4894 - Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) colony on the Antarctic Peninsula. There are an estimated 2 million breeding pairs of chinstrap penguins in the Antarctic peninsula region alone, perhaps as many as 7.5 million breeding pairs in all of Antarctica. Their name derives from the narrow black band under their heads which makes it appear as if they are wearing black helmets, making them one of the most easily identified types of penguin. Other names for them are "Ringed Penguins", "Bearded Penguins", and "Stonecracker Penguins" due to their harsh call. They grow to 68 cm (27 in). The average adult weight of a Chinstrap Penguin is 4.5 kg (10 lbs). Weight can range from 3 to 6 kg (6.6-13.2 lbs), with males being slightly larger and weight varying based on where the penguin is in the breeding cycle. Their diet consists of krill, shrimp, and fish. On land they build circular nests from stones, and lay two eggs, which are incubated by both the male and the female for shifts of five to ten days. They can also breed on icebergs, though they prefer non-icy conditions. The chicks hatch after about 35 days, and have fluffy gray backs and white fronts. The chicks stay in the nest for 20?30 days before they go to join a creche. At around 50?60 days old, they moult, gaining their adult plumage and go to sea. The Chinstrap Penguin was first described by German naturalist Forster in 1781. Its specific epithet was often seen as antarctica, however a 2002 review determined the genus Pygoscelis was masculine, and hence the correct binomial name is Pygoscelis antarcticus.
Guests from the Lindblad Expedition ship National Geographic Explorer lay in the relatively warm waters of the caldera at Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there.
979-7910 - Guests from the Lindblad Expedition ship National Geographic Explorer lay in the relatively warm waters of the caldera at Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there.
Views of the town of Ushuaia, Argentina. Ushuaia pronounced [u'swaia]) is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego and the southernmost city in the world. Ushuaia is located in a wide bay on the southern coast of the island of Tierra del Fuego, guarded on the north by the Martial mountain range and on the south by the Beagle Channel. Its population is estimated today (2008) at about 84,000. (2001 population: 45,430 ). The city was originally named by early British colonists after the name that the native Yámana people had for the area. For most of the first half of the 20th century, the city was centered around a prison for serious criminals. The Argentine government set up this prison following the example of the British with Australia or the French with Devil's Island; escape from a prison on Tierra del Fuego was similarly impossible.
979-5030 - Views of the town of Ushuaia, Argentina. Ushuaia pronounced [u'swaia]) is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego and the southernmost city in the world. Ushuaia is located in a wide bay on the southern coast of the island of Tierra del Fuego, guarded on the north by the Martial mountain range and on the south by the Beagle Channel. Its population is estimated today (2008) at about 84,000. (2001 population: 45,430 ). The city was originally named by early British colonists after the name that the native Yámana people had for the area. For most of the first half of the 20th century, the city was centered around a prison for serious criminals. The Argentine government set up this prison following the example of the British with Australia or the French with Devil's Island; escape from a prison on Tierra del Fuego was similarly impossible.
Views of the Drake Passage, the body of water between the southern tip of South America at Cape Horn, Chile and the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica. It connects the southwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean (Scotia Sea) with the southeastern part of the Pacific Ocean and extends into the Southern Ocean. The passage is named after the 16th century English privateer Sir Francis Drake, whose only remaining ship after passing through the Strait of Magellan was blown far South in September 1578 and who inferred an open connection of the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Half a century earlier, after a gale had pushed them South from the entrance of the Strait of Magellan, the crew of the Spanish navigator Francisco de Hoces thought they saw a land's end and possibly inferred this passage in 1525. For this reason, some Spanish and Latin American historians and sources call it Mar de Hoces after Francisco de Hoces. The first recorded voyage through the passage was that of the Eendracht, captained by the Dutch navigator Willem Schouten in 1616, naming Cape Horn in the process. The 800 km (500 miles) wide passage between Cape Horn and Greenwich Island is the shortest crossing from Antarctica to the rest of the world's land. The boundary between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans is sometimes taken to be a line drawn from Cape Horn to Snow Island (130 km (80 miles) north of mainland Antarctica). Alternatively the meridian that passes through Cape Horn may be taken as the boundary. Both boundaries lie entirely within the Drake Passage. There is no significant land anywhere around the world at the latitudes of the Drake Passage, which is important to the unimpeded flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current which carries a huge volume of water (about 600 times the flow of the Amazon River) through the Passage and around Antarctica.
979-4395 - Views of the Drake Passage, the body of water between the southern tip of South America at Cape Horn, Chile and the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica. It connects the southwestern part of the Atlantic Ocean (Scotia Sea) with the southeastern part of the Pacific Ocean and extends into the Southern Ocean. The passage is named after the 16th century English privateer Sir Francis Drake, whose only remaining ship after passing through the Strait of Magellan was blown far South in September 1578 and who inferred an open connection of the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Half a century earlier, after a gale had pushed them South from the entrance of the Strait of Magellan, the crew of the Spanish navigator Francisco de Hoces thought they saw a land's end and possibly inferred this passage in 1525. For this reason, some Spanish and Latin American historians and sources call it Mar de Hoces after Francisco de Hoces. The first recorded voyage through the passage was that of the Eendracht, captained by the Dutch navigator Willem Schouten in 1616, naming Cape Horn in the process. The 800 km (500 miles) wide passage between Cape Horn and Greenwich Island is the shortest crossing from Antarctica to the rest of the world's land. The boundary between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans is sometimes taken to be a line drawn from Cape Horn to Snow Island (130 km (80 miles) north of mainland Antarctica). Alternatively the meridian that passes through Cape Horn may be taken as the boundary. Both boundaries lie entirely within the Drake Passage. There is no significant land anywhere around the world at the latitudes of the Drake Passage, which is important to the unimpeded flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current which carries a huge volume of water (about 600 times the flow of the Amazon River) through the Passage and around Antarctica.
Weddell Seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) hauled out on ice near the Antarctic Peninsula, southern Ocean. This is the most southerly breeding seal in the world, south to 78 degrees south, inhabiting both pack and fast ice. A weddell seal can grow 2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in) long and weigh between 400 to 600 kg (880 to 1,300 lb). It is estimated that there are approximately 800,000 individuals today. It is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. It is the only species in the genus Leptonychotes. Recorded dive depths to 750 m for 73 minutes. On average, the Weddell Seal lives for 20 years, compared to an average life expectancy of 40 years for most other seals. This is because the Weddell Seal winters under the Antarctic sea ice adjacent to continental Antarctica where it must constantly maintain breathing holes by scraping the ice with its teeth. This has the effect of wearing down its teeth over time. Once a Weddell Seal's teeth have worn down to a certain level, the seal is unable to eat and eventually starves to death. The Weddell Seal lives further south than any other mammal, inhabiting the waters of McMurdo Sound, 1,300 km (810 mi) from the South Pole. The Weddell Seal is protected by the Antarctic Treaty and the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals.
979-4592 - Weddell Seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) hauled out on ice near the Antarctic Peninsula, southern Ocean. This is the most southerly breeding seal in the world, south to 78 degrees south, inhabiting both pack and fast ice. A weddell seal can grow 2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in) long and weigh between 400 to 600 kg (880 to 1,300 lb). It is estimated that there are approximately 800,000 individuals today. It is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. It is the only species in the genus Leptonychotes. Recorded dive depths to 750 m for 73 minutes. On average, the Weddell Seal lives for 20 years, compared to an average life expectancy of 40 years for most other seals. This is because the Weddell Seal winters under the Antarctic sea ice adjacent to continental Antarctica where it must constantly maintain breathing holes by scraping the ice with its teeth. This has the effect of wearing down its teeth over time. Once a Weddell Seal's teeth have worn down to a certain level, the seal is unable to eat and eventually starves to death. The Weddell Seal lives further south than any other mammal, inhabiting the waters of McMurdo Sound, 1,300 km (810 mi) from the South Pole. The Weddell Seal is protected by the Antarctic Treaty and the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals.
Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
979-4807 - Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
The Lindblad Expedition ship National Geographic Explorer transits Lemaire Channel in late evening light on the west side of the Antarctic peninsula in Antarctica. Lemaire Channel is a strait off Antarctica, located between the mainland's Antarctic Peninsula and Booth Island. It is one of the top tourist destinations in Antarctica; steep cliffs hem in the iceberg-filled passage, which is 11 km long and just 1,600 meters wide at its narrowest point. It was first seen by the German expedition of 1873-74, but not traversed until December 1898, when the Belgica of the de Gerlache expedition passed through. De Gerlache named it for Charles Lemaire, a Belgian explorer of the Congo. The channel has since become a standard part of the itinerary for cruising in Antarctica; not only is it scenic, but the protected waters are usually as still as a lake, a rare occurrence in the storm-wracked southern seas, and the north-south traverse delivers vessels close to Pleneau and Petermann Islands for landings. The principal difficulty is that icebergs may fill the channel, especially in early season, obliging a ship to backtrack and go around the outside of Booth Island in order to reach both Pleneau and Petermann Islands.
979-4551 - The Lindblad Expedition ship National Geographic Explorer transits Lemaire Channel in late evening light on the west side of the Antarctic peninsula in Antarctica. Lemaire Channel is a strait off Antarctica, located between the mainland's Antarctic Peninsula and Booth Island. It is one of the top tourist destinations in Antarctica; steep cliffs hem in the iceberg-filled passage, which is 11 km long and just 1,600 meters wide at its narrowest point. It was first seen by the German expedition of 1873-74, but not traversed until December 1898, when the Belgica of the de Gerlache expedition passed through. De Gerlache named it for Charles Lemaire, a Belgian explorer of the Congo. The channel has since become a standard part of the itinerary for cruising in Antarctica; not only is it scenic, but the protected waters are usually as still as a lake, a rare occurrence in the storm-wracked southern seas, and the north-south traverse delivers vessels close to Pleneau and Petermann Islands for landings. The principal difficulty is that icebergs may fill the channel, especially in early season, obliging a ship to backtrack and go around the outside of Booth Island in order to reach both Pleneau and Petermann Islands.
Mike and CT in Antarctica
979-4627 - Mike and CT in Antarctica
Views of the town of Ushuaia, Argentina. Ushuaia pronounced [u'swaia]) is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego and the southernmost city in the world. Ushuaia is located in a wide bay on the southern coast of the island of Tierra del Fuego, guarded on the north by the Martial mountain range and on the south by the Beagle Channel. Its population is estimated today (2008) at about 84,000. (2001 population: 45,430 ). The city was originally named by early British colonists after the name that the native Yámana people had for the area. For most of the first half of the 20th century, the city was centered around a prison for serious criminals. The Argentine government set up this prison following the example of the British with Australia or the French with Devil's Island; escape from a prison on Tierra del Fuego was similarly impossible.
979-5027 - Views of the town of Ushuaia, Argentina. Ushuaia pronounced [u'swaia]) is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego and the southernmost city in the world. Ushuaia is located in a wide bay on the southern coast of the island of Tierra del Fuego, guarded on the north by the Martial mountain range and on the south by the Beagle Channel. Its population is estimated today (2008) at about 84,000. (2001 population: 45,430 ). The city was originally named by early British colonists after the name that the native Yámana people had for the area. For most of the first half of the 20th century, the city was centered around a prison for serious criminals. The Argentine government set up this prison following the example of the British with Australia or the French with Devil's Island; escape from a prison on Tierra del Fuego was similarly impossible.
Adult Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica) near the Antarctic peninsula in the southern ocean. MORE INFO This skua is often referred to as Antarctic Skua (or vice versa); the taxonomy of Skuas is still a matter of dispute. Other names (probably owing to the high level of hybridization in this species) include Southern Great Skua, Southern Skua or Subantarctic Skua.
979-9111 - Adult Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica) near the Antarctic peninsula in the southern ocean. MORE INFO This skua is often referred to as Antarctic Skua (or vice versa); the taxonomy of Skuas is still a matter of dispute. Other names (probably owing to the high level of hybridization in this species) include Southern Great Skua, Southern Skua or Subantarctic Skua.
Views of the town of Ushuaia, Argentina. Ushuaia pronounced [u'swaia]) is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego and the southernmost city in the world. Ushuaia is located in a wide bay on the southern coast of the island of Tierra del Fuego, guarded on the north by the Martial mountain range and on the south by the Beagle Channel. Its population is estimated today (2008) at about 84,000. (2001 population: 45,430 ). The city was originally named by early British colonists after the name that the native Yámana people had for the area. For most of the first half of the 20th century, the city was centered around a prison for serious criminals. The Argentine government set up this prison following the example of the British with Australia or the French with Devil's Island; escape from a prison on Tierra del Fuego was similarly impossible.
979-5015 - Views of the town of Ushuaia, Argentina. Ushuaia pronounced [u'swaia]) is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego and the southernmost city in the world. Ushuaia is located in a wide bay on the southern coast of the island of Tierra del Fuego, guarded on the north by the Martial mountain range and on the south by the Beagle Channel. Its population is estimated today (2008) at about 84,000. (2001 population: 45,430 ). The city was originally named by early British colonists after the name that the native Yámana people had for the area. For most of the first half of the 20th century, the city was centered around a prison for serious criminals. The Argentine government set up this prison following the example of the British with Australia or the French with Devil's Island; escape from a prison on Tierra del Fuego was similarly impossible.
Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
979-4389 - Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
979-4872 - Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
Adult cape petrel (Daption capense) on the wing in and around the Antarctic peninsula. This petrel is sometimes also called the pintado petrel, the word pintado meaning "painted" in Spanish. Cape Petrels breed on numerous islands surrounding Antarctica. They are colonial, nesting on rocky cliffs or on level rocky ground no further than a kilometer from the sea. The nests are simple and are usually placed under an overhanging rock for protection. A single egg is laid in mid to late November and incubated for around 45 days. Both parents take shifts of several days incubating the egg, with the male shifts on average lasting a day longer. Like fulmars Cape Petrels will aggressively defend their nesting site by ejecting stomach oil at intruders; skuas in particular will prey on Cape Petrel eggs and chicks. Once hatched the chick is brooded for 10 days until it is able to thermoregulate, after which both parents hunt at sea to feed it. Cape Petrel chicks fledge after around 45 days. Cape Petrels are extremely aggressive at sea both towards their own species and others, and will even spit oil at competitors. They are also habitual ship-followers. During the summer Cape Petrels feed close to Antarctica's shelf; during the winter they range much further, reaching Angola, Australia and even the Galapagos Islands. Cape Petrels are extremely common seabirds; their population is estimated to be around 2 million birds. They are not considered threatened.
979-4338 - Adult cape petrel (Daption capense) on the wing in and around the Antarctic peninsula. This petrel is sometimes also called the pintado petrel, the word pintado meaning "painted" in Spanish. Cape Petrels breed on numerous islands surrounding Antarctica. They are colonial, nesting on rocky cliffs or on level rocky ground no further than a kilometer from the sea. The nests are simple and are usually placed under an overhanging rock for protection. A single egg is laid in mid to late November and incubated for around 45 days. Both parents take shifts of several days incubating the egg, with the male shifts on average lasting a day longer. Like fulmars Cape Petrels will aggressively defend their nesting site by ejecting stomach oil at intruders; skuas in particular will prey on Cape Petrel eggs and chicks. Once hatched the chick is brooded for 10 days until it is able to thermoregulate, after which both parents hunt at sea to feed it. Cape Petrel chicks fledge after around 45 days. Cape Petrels are extremely aggressive at sea both towards their own species and others, and will even spit oil at competitors. They are also habitual ship-followers. During the summer Cape Petrels feed close to Antarctica's shelf; during the winter they range much further, reaching Angola, Australia and even the Galapagos Islands. Cape Petrels are extremely common seabirds; their population is estimated to be around 2 million birds. They are not considered threatened.
An adult Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica)  on South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. This skua is often referred to as Antarctic Skua (or vice versa); the taxonomy of Skuas is still a matter of dispute. Other names (probably owing to the high level of hybridization in this species) include Southern Great Skua, Southern Skua or Subantarctic Skua.
979-4296 - An adult Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica) on South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. This skua is often referred to as Antarctic Skua (or vice versa); the taxonomy of Skuas is still a matter of dispute. Other names (probably owing to the high level of hybridization in this species) include Southern Great Skua, Southern Skua or Subantarctic Skua.
Reflections in calm water photographed from the Lindblad Expedition Ship National Geographic Explorer operating in Antarctica, Southern Ocean.
979-7774 - Reflections in calm water photographed from the Lindblad Expedition Ship National Geographic Explorer operating in Antarctica, Southern Ocean.
Adult female leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) stalking, then killing and eating an adult gentoo penguin in Paradise Bay, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO Although primarily a krill eater, this female leopard seal has perfected the technique of ambushing gentoo penguins returning to their nesting colony in Paradise Bay. In order to avoid eating penguin feathers she literally flings the dead penguin out of its own skin by violently thrashing the penguin side-to-side. In 2003, a leopard seal dragged a snorkeling biologist underwater to her death in what was identified as the first known human fatality from a leopard seal. However, numerous examples of aggressive behavior, stalking, and attacks on humans had been previously documented.
979-7412 - Adult female leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) stalking, then killing and eating an adult gentoo penguin in Paradise Bay, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO Although primarily a krill eater, this female leopard seal has perfected the technique of ambushing gentoo penguins returning to their nesting colony in Paradise Bay. In order to avoid eating penguin feathers she literally flings the dead penguin out of its own skin by violently thrashing the penguin side-to-side. In 2003, a leopard seal dragged a snorkeling biologist underwater to her death in what was identified as the first known human fatality from a leopard seal. However, numerous examples of aggressive behavior, stalking, and attacks on humans had been previously documented.
The Lindblad Expedition ship National Geographic Explorer transits Lemaire Channel in late evening light on the west side of the Antarctic peninsula in Antarctica. Lemaire Channel is a strait off Antarctica, located between the mainland's Antarctic Peninsula and Booth Island. It is one of the top tourist destinations in Antarctica; steep cliffs hem in the iceberg-filled passage, which is 11 km long and just 1,600 meters wide at its narrowest point. It was first seen by the German expedition of 1873-74, but not traversed until December 1898, when the Belgica of the de Gerlache expedition passed through. De Gerlache named it for Charles Lemaire, a Belgian explorer of the Congo. The channel has since become a standard part of the itinerary for cruising in Antarctica; not only is it scenic, but the protected waters are usually as still as a lake, a rare occurrence in the storm-wracked southern seas, and the north-south traverse delivers vessels close to Pleneau and Petermann Islands for landings. The principal difficulty is that icebergs may fill the channel, especially in early season, obliging a ship to backtrack and go around the outside of Booth Island in order to reach both Pleneau and Petermann Islands.
979-4572 - The Lindblad Expedition ship National Geographic Explorer transits Lemaire Channel in late evening light on the west side of the Antarctic peninsula in Antarctica. Lemaire Channel is a strait off Antarctica, located between the mainland's Antarctic Peninsula and Booth Island. It is one of the top tourist destinations in Antarctica; steep cliffs hem in the iceberg-filled passage, which is 11 km long and just 1,600 meters wide at its narrowest point. It was first seen by the German expedition of 1873-74, but not traversed until December 1898, when the Belgica of the de Gerlache expedition passed through. De Gerlache named it for Charles Lemaire, a Belgian explorer of the Congo. The channel has since become a standard part of the itinerary for cruising in Antarctica; not only is it scenic, but the protected waters are usually as still as a lake, a rare occurrence in the storm-wracked southern seas, and the north-south traverse delivers vessels close to Pleneau and Petermann Islands for landings. The principal difficulty is that icebergs may fill the channel, especially in early season, obliging a ship to backtrack and go around the outside of Booth Island in order to reach both Pleneau and Petermann Islands.
A small pod of about 25 "Type B" killer whales (Orcinus orca) at 678 30.3?S  678 58.4?W south of the Antarctic Circle near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO Killer whales are found in all oceans and most seas, including (unusually for cetaceans) the Mediterranean and Arabian Seas. These animals are also often called killer whales, but this is a misnomer as this is actually the largest member of the dolphin family.  The Antarctic population of killer whales is estimated at 70,000?80,000.
979-9175 - A small pod of about 25 "Type B" killer whales (Orcinus orca) at 678 30.3?S 678 58.4?W south of the Antarctic Circle near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO Killer whales are found in all oceans and most seas, including (unusually for cetaceans) the Mediterranean and Arabian Seas. These animals are also often called killer whales, but this is a misnomer as this is actually the largest member of the dolphin family. The Antarctic population of killer whales is estimated at 70,000?80,000.
Wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans) on the wing in the Drake Passage between the tip of South America and the Antarctic Peninsula, southern ocean. The Wandering Albatross has the largest wingspan of any living bird, with the average wingspan being 3.1 metres (10.2 ft). The longest-winged examples verified have been about 3.7 m (12 ft), but probably erroneous reports of as much as 5.3 m (17.5 ft) are known. As a result of its wingspan, it is capable of remaining in the air without beating its wings for several hours at a time (travelling 22 metres for every meter of drop). The length of the body is about 1.35 m (4.4 ft) with females being slightly smaller than males, and they weigh typically from 6 to 12 kg (13-26 lb). Immature birds have been recorded weighing as much as 16.1 kg (35 lb) during their first flights. The plumage varies with age, but adults have white bodies with black and white wings. Males have whiter wings than females with just the tips and trailing edges of the wings black. They feed on squid, small fish and on animal refuse that floats on the sea, eating to such excess at times that they are unable to fly and rest helplessly on the water.
979-4347 - Wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans) on the wing in the Drake Passage between the tip of South America and the Antarctic Peninsula, southern ocean. The Wandering Albatross has the largest wingspan of any living bird, with the average wingspan being 3.1 metres (10.2 ft). The longest-winged examples verified have been about 3.7 m (12 ft), but probably erroneous reports of as much as 5.3 m (17.5 ft) are known. As a result of its wingspan, it is capable of remaining in the air without beating its wings for several hours at a time (travelling 22 metres for every meter of drop). The length of the body is about 1.35 m (4.4 ft) with females being slightly smaller than males, and they weigh typically from 6 to 12 kg (13-26 lb). Immature birds have been recorded weighing as much as 16.1 kg (35 lb) during their first flights. The plumage varies with age, but adults have white bodies with black and white wings. Males have whiter wings than females with just the tips and trailing edges of the wings black. They feed on squid, small fish and on animal refuse that floats on the sea, eating to such excess at times that they are unable to fly and rest helplessly on the water.
Adult leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) hauled out on ice floe near the Antarctic Peninsula, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The leopard seal is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the Southern Elephant Seal), and is near the top of the Antarctic food chain.
979-7398 - Adult leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) hauled out on ice floe near the Antarctic Peninsula, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The leopard seal is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the Southern Elephant Seal), and is near the top of the Antarctic food chain.
Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
979-4375 - Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
Views of landscape around Stromness Whaling Station at 54¡9'S 6¡41'W on the northern coast of South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean
979-4981 - Views of landscape around Stromness Whaling Station at 54¡9'S 6¡41'W on the northern coast of South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean
Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
979-4856 - Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
Weddell Seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) hauled out on ice near the Antarctic Peninsula, southern Ocean. This is the most southerly breeding seal in the world, south to 78 degrees south, inhabiting both pack and fast ice. A weddell seal can grow 2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in) long and weigh between 400 to 600 kg (880 to 1,300 lb). It is estimated that there are approximately 800,000 individuals today. It is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. It is the only species in the genus Leptonychotes. Recorded dive depths to 750 m for 73 minutes. On average, the Weddell Seal lives for 20 years, compared to an average life expectancy of 40 years for most other seals. This is because the Weddell Seal winters under the Antarctic sea ice adjacent to continental Antarctica where it must constantly maintain breathing holes by scraping the ice with its teeth. This has the effect of wearing down its teeth over time. Once a Weddell Seal's teeth have worn down to a certain level, the seal is unable to eat and eventually starves to death. The Weddell Seal lives further south than any other mammal, inhabiting the waters of McMurdo Sound, 1,300 km (810 mi) from the South Pole. The Weddell Seal is protected by the Antarctic Treaty and the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals.
979-4603 - Weddell Seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) hauled out on ice near the Antarctic Peninsula, southern Ocean. This is the most southerly breeding seal in the world, south to 78 degrees south, inhabiting both pack and fast ice. A weddell seal can grow 2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in) long and weigh between 400 to 600 kg (880 to 1,300 lb). It is estimated that there are approximately 800,000 individuals today. It is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. It is the only species in the genus Leptonychotes. Recorded dive depths to 750 m for 73 minutes. On average, the Weddell Seal lives for 20 years, compared to an average life expectancy of 40 years for most other seals. This is because the Weddell Seal winters under the Antarctic sea ice adjacent to continental Antarctica where it must constantly maintain breathing holes by scraping the ice with its teeth. This has the effect of wearing down its teeth over time. Once a Weddell Seal's teeth have worn down to a certain level, the seal is unable to eat and eventually starves to death. The Weddell Seal lives further south than any other mammal, inhabiting the waters of McMurdo Sound, 1,300 km (810 mi) from the South Pole. The Weddell Seal is protected by the Antarctic Treaty and the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals.
Adult leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) hauled out on ice floe near the Antarctic Peninsula, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The leopard seal is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the Southern Elephant Seal), and is near the top of the Antarctic food chain.
979-7402 - Adult leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) hauled out on ice floe near the Antarctic Peninsula, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The leopard seal is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the Southern Elephant Seal), and is near the top of the Antarctic food chain.
A small pod of about 25 "Type B" killer whales (Orcinus orca) at 67ø 30.3?S  67ø 58.4?W south of the Antarctic Circle near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO Killer whales are found in all oceans and most seas, including (unusually for cetaceans) the Mediterranean and Arabian Seas. These animals are also often called killer whales, but this is a misnomer as this is actually the largest member of the dolphin family.  The Antarctic population of killer whales is estimated at 70,000?80,000.
979-9177 - A small pod of about 25 "Type B" killer whales (Orcinus orca) at 67ø 30.3?S 67ø 58.4?W south of the Antarctic Circle near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO Killer whales are found in all oceans and most seas, including (unusually for cetaceans) the Mediterranean and Arabian Seas. These animals are also often called killer whales, but this is a misnomer as this is actually the largest member of the dolphin family. The Antarctic population of killer whales is estimated at 70,000?80,000.
Adult Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) power lunging in the Drake Passage between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The fin whale is the second largest animal to ever live on the Earth and is one of the fastest of all the great whales, able to reach speeds over 25 mph.
979-7322 - Adult Fin Whale (Balaenoptera physalus) power lunging in the Drake Passage between South America and the Antarctic Peninsula, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The fin whale is the second largest animal to ever live on the Earth and is one of the fastest of all the great whales, able to reach speeds over 25 mph.
Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
979-4379 - Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
Young southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) on the beach at South Georgia in the Southern Ocean. There is much mock-fighting among males on the beach (breeding season is actually over and the truly large bulls have left to forage). The Southern Elephant Seal is one of two species of elephant seal. It is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. While the females average about 680 kg (1,500 lb) and 3 m (10 feet) long, the bulls average around 3636 kg (8,000 lb) and 4.2 m (13 feet) long. The record bull, shot in Possession Bay, South Georgia in 1913, was 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and 6.9 m (22.5 feet) long. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals. The largest sub-population is in the South Atlantic with more than 400,000 individuals including approximately 350,000 seals in South Georgia, the other breeding colonies located on the Falkland Islands, Antarctica, and Valdes Peninsula in Argentina (the only continental breeding population). Thanks to satellite tracking, it was found that the animals spend very little time on the surface, usually a few minutes for oxygen. They dive repeatedly, each time for more than twenty minutes, to hunt their prey; squid and fish, between 400 and 1000 m deep. The diving records were recorded in nearly two hours for the duration and more than 1400 m in depth.
979-4667 - Young southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) on the beach at South Georgia in the Southern Ocean. There is much mock-fighting among males on the beach (breeding season is actually over and the truly large bulls have left to forage). The Southern Elephant Seal is one of two species of elephant seal. It is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. While the females average about 680 kg (1,500 lb) and 3 m (10 feet) long, the bulls average around 3636 kg (8,000 lb) and 4.2 m (13 feet) long. The record bull, shot in Possession Bay, South Georgia in 1913, was 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and 6.9 m (22.5 feet) long. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals. The largest sub-population is in the South Atlantic with more than 400,000 individuals including approximately 350,000 seals in South Georgia, the other breeding colonies located on the Falkland Islands, Antarctica, and Valdes Peninsula in Argentina (the only continental breeding population). Thanks to satellite tracking, it was found that the animals spend very little time on the surface, usually a few minutes for oxygen. They dive repeatedly, each time for more than twenty minutes, to hunt their prey; squid and fish, between 400 and 1000 m deep. The diving records were recorded in nearly two hours for the duration and more than 1400 m in depth.
Weddell Seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) hauled out on ice near the Antarctic Peninsula, southern Ocean. This is the most southerly breeding seal in the world, south to 78 degrees south, inhabiting both pack and fast ice. A weddell seal can grow 2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in) long and weigh between 400 to 600 kg (880 to 1,300 lb). It is estimated that there are approximately 800,000 individuals today. It is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. It is the only species in the genus Leptonychotes. Recorded dive depths to 750 m for 73 minutes. On average, the Weddell Seal lives for 20 years, compared to an average life expectancy of 40 years for most other seals. This is because the Weddell Seal winters under the Antarctic sea ice adjacent to continental Antarctica where it must constantly maintain breathing holes by scraping the ice with its teeth. This has the effect of wearing down its teeth over time. Once a Weddell Seal's teeth have worn down to a certain level, the seal is unable to eat and eventually starves to death. The Weddell Seal lives further south than any other mammal, inhabiting the waters of McMurdo Sound, 1,300 km (810 mi) from the South Pole. The Weddell Seal is protected by the Antarctic Treaty and the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals.
979-4598 - Weddell Seal (Leptonychotes weddellii) hauled out on ice near the Antarctic Peninsula, southern Ocean. This is the most southerly breeding seal in the world, south to 78 degrees south, inhabiting both pack and fast ice. A weddell seal can grow 2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in) long and weigh between 400 to 600 kg (880 to 1,300 lb). It is estimated that there are approximately 800,000 individuals today. It is named after Sir James Weddell, commander of British sealing expeditions in the Weddell Sea. It is the only species in the genus Leptonychotes. Recorded dive depths to 750 m for 73 minutes. On average, the Weddell Seal lives for 20 years, compared to an average life expectancy of 40 years for most other seals. This is because the Weddell Seal winters under the Antarctic sea ice adjacent to continental Antarctica where it must constantly maintain breathing holes by scraping the ice with its teeth. This has the effect of wearing down its teeth over time. Once a Weddell Seal's teeth have worn down to a certain level, the seal is unable to eat and eventually starves to death. The Weddell Seal lives further south than any other mammal, inhabiting the waters of McMurdo Sound, 1,300 km (810 mi) from the South Pole. The Weddell Seal is protected by the Antarctic Treaty and the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals.
Adult South American Tern (Sterna hirundinacea) at breeding colony on offshore islets in the Beagle Channel, South America. This is a species of tern in the Sternidae family. It is found in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, the Falkland Islands, Peru, and Uruguay. Its natural habitat is shallow seas.
979-4961 - Adult South American Tern (Sterna hirundinacea) at breeding colony on offshore islets in the Beagle Channel, South America. This is a species of tern in the Sternidae family. It is found in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, the Falkland Islands, Peru, and Uruguay. Its natural habitat is shallow seas.
Views of the town of Ushuaia, Argentina. Ushuaia pronounced [u'swaia]) is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego and the southernmost city in the world. Ushuaia is located in a wide bay on the southern coast of the island of Tierra del Fuego, guarded on the north by the Martial mountain range and on the south by the Beagle Channel. Its population is estimated today (2008) at about 84,000. (2001 population: 45,430 ). The city was originally named by early British colonists after the name that the native Y·mana people had for the area. For most of the first half of the 20th century, the city was centered around a prison for serious criminals. The Argentine government set up this prison following the example of the British with Australia or the French with Devil's Island; escape from a prison on Tierra del Fuego was similarly impossible.
979-5034 - Views of the town of Ushuaia, Argentina. Ushuaia pronounced [u'swaia]) is the capital of the Argentine province of Tierra del Fuego and the southernmost city in the world. Ushuaia is located in a wide bay on the southern coast of the island of Tierra del Fuego, guarded on the north by the Martial mountain range and on the south by the Beagle Channel. Its population is estimated today (2008) at about 84,000. (2001 population: 45,430 ). The city was originally named by early British colonists after the name that the native Y·mana people had for the area. For most of the first half of the 20th century, the city was centered around a prison for serious criminals. The Argentine government set up this prison following the example of the British with Australia or the French with Devil's Island; escape from a prison on Tierra del Fuego was similarly impossible.
The Kelp Goose (Chloephaga hybrida), is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae (Spanish: Caranca or Cauquén Marino). It is in the shelduck subfamily Tadorninae. It can be found in the Southern part of South America; in Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, and the Falkland Islands. Males are a white color, with a black beak, and yellow feet. The females are dark brown, with transverse gray lines on the chest, and yellow feet. Kelp geese generally have clutches of 2-7 eggs. They prefer to hide their eggs in long grass. The eggs hatch about a month later. There are about 15,000 breeding pairs in existence. Kelp geese are noted for only eating kelp and will migrate along the coast of South America in order to find kelp, hence the name 'kelp geese'.
979-4308 - The Kelp Goose (Chloephaga hybrida), is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae (Spanish: Caranca or Cauquén Marino). It is in the shelduck subfamily Tadorninae. It can be found in the Southern part of South America; in Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego, and the Falkland Islands. Males are a white color, with a black beak, and yellow feet. The females are dark brown, with transverse gray lines on the chest, and yellow feet. Kelp geese generally have clutches of 2-7 eggs. They prefer to hide their eggs in long grass. The eggs hatch about a month later. There are about 15,000 breeding pairs in existence. Kelp geese are noted for only eating kelp and will migrate along the coast of South America in order to find kelp, hence the name 'kelp geese'.
Adult leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) hauled out on ice floe near the Antarctic Peninsula, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The leopard seal is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the Southern Elephant Seal), and is near the top of the Antarctic food chain.
979-7407 - Adult leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) hauled out on ice floe near the Antarctic Peninsula, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The leopard seal is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the Southern Elephant Seal), and is near the top of the Antarctic food chain.
Views of rough seas in the Bransfield Strait (63°0' S 59°0' W), a body of water about 60 miles wide extending for 200 miles in a general northeast-southwest direction between the South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula. It was named in about 1825 by James Weddell, Master, RN, for Edward Bransfield, Master, RN, who charted the South Shetland Islands in 1820. Shown here is the inaugural Antarctic voyage of the Lindblad expedition ship National Geographic Explorer, who encountered over 93 knot wind gusts in the Bransfield.
979-4288 - Views of rough seas in the Bransfield Strait (63°0' S 59°0' W), a body of water about 60 miles wide extending for 200 miles in a general northeast-southwest direction between the South Shetland Islands and Antarctic Peninsula. It was named in about 1825 by James Weddell, Master, RN, for Edward Bransfield, Master, RN, who charted the South Shetland Islands in 1820. Shown here is the inaugural Antarctic voyage of the Lindblad expedition ship National Geographic Explorer, who encountered over 93 knot wind gusts in the Bransfield.
Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
979-4383 - Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
Southern Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) in and around South Georgia, Southern Ocean. The giant petrels are two large seabirds from the genus Macronectes. Long considered to be conspecific (they were not established as separate species until 1966), the two species, the Southern Giant Petrel (M. giganteus) and Northern Giant Petrel (M. halli) are the largest members of the petrel family, Procellariidae, and considered, with the two fulmars to form a distinct sub-group within the petrels. Both species are restricted to the southern hemisphere, and though the ranges overlap greatly, notably in South Georgia, the Southern Giant Petrel nests further south, with colonies on Antarctica. Giant petrels are aggressive predators and scavengers, which has led to the other common name they were known as, the Stinker, and the whalers used to call them gluttons. The Southern Giant Petrel is slightly larger at 3.8-8 kg (8.4-17.6 lbs), 180-210 cm (71-83 in) across the wings and 86-100 cm (33-40 in). They superficially resemble the albatross, and are the only procellarids who can equal them in size.
979-4610 - Southern Giant Petrel (Macronectes giganteus) in and around South Georgia, Southern Ocean. The giant petrels are two large seabirds from the genus Macronectes. Long considered to be conspecific (they were not established as separate species until 1966), the two species, the Southern Giant Petrel (M. giganteus) and Northern Giant Petrel (M. halli) are the largest members of the petrel family, Procellariidae, and considered, with the two fulmars to form a distinct sub-group within the petrels. Both species are restricted to the southern hemisphere, and though the ranges overlap greatly, notably in South Georgia, the Southern Giant Petrel nests further south, with colonies on Antarctica. Giant petrels are aggressive predators and scavengers, which has led to the other common name they were known as, the Stinker, and the whalers used to call them gluttons. The Southern Giant Petrel is slightly larger at 3.8-8 kg (8.4-17.6 lbs), 180-210 cm (71-83 in) across the wings and 86-100 cm (33-40 in). They superficially resemble the albatross, and are the only procellarids who can equal them in size.
Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
979-4356 - Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
Pregnant female southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) giving birth on the beach near the abandoned whaling station at Stromness Bay on South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The southern elephant seal is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals including approximately 350,000 elephant seals in South Georgia.
979-9279 - Pregnant female southern elephant seal (Mirounga leonina) giving birth on the beach near the abandoned whaling station at Stromness Bay on South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The southern elephant seal is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals including approximately 350,000 elephant seals in South Georgia.
Curious adult leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) approaches Zodiac near Booth Island, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The leopard seal is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the Southern Elephant Seal), and is near the top of the Antarctic food chain.  In 2003, a leopard seal dragged a snorkeling biologist underwater to her death in what was identified as the first known human fatality from a leopard seal. However, numerous examples of aggressive behavior, stalking, and attacks on humans had been previously documented.
979-7383 - Curious adult leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx) approaches Zodiac near Booth Island, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO The leopard seal is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the Southern Elephant Seal), and is near the top of the Antarctic food chain. In 2003, a leopard seal dragged a snorkeling biologist underwater to her death in what was identified as the first known human fatality from a leopard seal. However, numerous examples of aggressive behavior, stalking, and attacks on humans had been previously documented.
The Lindblad Expedition ship National Geographic Explorer transits Lemaire Channel in late evening light on the west side of the Antarctic peninsula in Antarctica. Lemaire Channel is a strait off Antarctica, located between the mainland's Antarctic Peninsula and Booth Island. It is one of the top tourist destinations in Antarctica; steep cliffs hem in the iceberg-filled passage, which is 11 km long and just 1,600 meters wide at its narrowest point. It was first seen by the German expedition of 1873-74, but not traversed until December 1898, when the Belgica of the de Gerlache expedition passed through. De Gerlache named it for Charles Lemaire, a Belgian explorer of the Congo. The channel has since become a standard part of the itinerary for cruising in Antarctica; not only is it scenic, but the protected waters are usually as still as a lake, a rare occurrence in the storm-wracked southern seas, and the north-south traverse delivers vessels close to Pleneau and Petermann Islands for landings. The principal difficulty is that icebergs may fill the channel, especially in early season, obliging a ship to backtrack and go around the outside of Booth Island in order to reach both Pleneau and Petermann Islands.
979-4548 - The Lindblad Expedition ship National Geographic Explorer transits Lemaire Channel in late evening light on the west side of the Antarctic peninsula in Antarctica. Lemaire Channel is a strait off Antarctica, located between the mainland's Antarctic Peninsula and Booth Island. It is one of the top tourist destinations in Antarctica; steep cliffs hem in the iceberg-filled passage, which is 11 km long and just 1,600 meters wide at its narrowest point. It was first seen by the German expedition of 1873-74, but not traversed until December 1898, when the Belgica of the de Gerlache expedition passed through. De Gerlache named it for Charles Lemaire, a Belgian explorer of the Congo. The channel has since become a standard part of the itinerary for cruising in Antarctica; not only is it scenic, but the protected waters are usually as still as a lake, a rare occurrence in the storm-wracked southern seas, and the north-south traverse delivers vessels close to Pleneau and Petermann Islands for landings. The principal difficulty is that icebergs may fill the channel, especially in early season, obliging a ship to backtrack and go around the outside of Booth Island in order to reach both Pleneau and Petermann Islands.
Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) colony on the Antarctic Peninsula. There are an estimated 2 million breeding pairs of chinstrap penguins in the Antarctic peninsula region alone, perhaps as many as 7.5 million breeding pairs in all of Antarctica. Their name derives from the narrow black band under their heads which makes it appear as if they are wearing black helmets, making them one of the most easily identified types of penguin. Other names for them are "Ringed Penguins", "Bearded Penguins", and "Stonecracker Penguins" due to their harsh call. They grow to 68 cm (27 in). The average adult weight of a Chinstrap Penguin is 4.5 kg (10 lbs). Weight can range from 3 to 6 kg (6.6-13.2 lbs), with males being slightly larger and weight varying based on where the penguin is in the breeding cycle. Their diet consists of krill, shrimp, and fish. On land they build circular nests from stones, and lay two eggs, which are incubated by both the male and the female for shifts of five to ten days. They can also breed on icebergs, though they prefer non-icy conditions. The chicks hatch after about 35 days, and have fluffy gray backs and white fronts. The chicks stay in the nest for 20?30 days before they go to join a creche. At around 50?60 days old, they moult, gaining their adult plumage and go to sea. The Chinstrap Penguin was first described by German naturalist Forster in 1781. Its specific epithet was often seen as antarctica, however a 2002 review determined the genus Pygoscelis was masculine, and hence the correct binomial name is Pygoscelis antarcticus.
979-4896 - Chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarctica) colony on the Antarctic Peninsula. There are an estimated 2 million breeding pairs of chinstrap penguins in the Antarctic peninsula region alone, perhaps as many as 7.5 million breeding pairs in all of Antarctica. Their name derives from the narrow black band under their heads which makes it appear as if they are wearing black helmets, making them one of the most easily identified types of penguin. Other names for them are "Ringed Penguins", "Bearded Penguins", and "Stonecracker Penguins" due to their harsh call. They grow to 68 cm (27 in). The average adult weight of a Chinstrap Penguin is 4.5 kg (10 lbs). Weight can range from 3 to 6 kg (6.6-13.2 lbs), with males being slightly larger and weight varying based on where the penguin is in the breeding cycle. Their diet consists of krill, shrimp, and fish. On land they build circular nests from stones, and lay two eggs, which are incubated by both the male and the female for shifts of five to ten days. They can also breed on icebergs, though they prefer non-icy conditions. The chicks hatch after about 35 days, and have fluffy gray backs and white fronts. The chicks stay in the nest for 20?30 days before they go to join a creche. At around 50?60 days old, they moult, gaining their adult plumage and go to sea. The Chinstrap Penguin was first described by German naturalist Forster in 1781. Its specific epithet was often seen as antarctica, however a 2002 review determined the genus Pygoscelis was masculine, and hence the correct binomial name is Pygoscelis antarcticus.
Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
979-4812 - Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
The Lindblad Expeditions ship National Geographic Explorer pushes through ice in Crystal Sound, south of the Antarctic Circle. This area is full of flat first year sea ice, well developed icebergs, with many open leads.
979-4331 - The Lindblad Expeditions ship National Geographic Explorer pushes through ice in Crystal Sound, south of the Antarctic Circle. This area is full of flat first year sea ice, well developed icebergs, with many open leads.
Blizzard conditions cause the ocean's surface to begin to freeze in Dahlmann Bay, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO First signs of grease ice as the surface of the sea begins to freeze.
979-7379 - Blizzard conditions cause the ocean's surface to begin to freeze in Dahlmann Bay, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO First signs of grease ice as the surface of the sea begins to freeze.
The Lindblad Expedition ship National Geographic Explorer transits Lemaire Channel in late evening light on the west side of the Antarctic peninsula in Antarctica. Lemaire Channel is a strait off Antarctica, located between the mainland's Antarctic Peninsula and Booth Island. It is one of the top tourist destinations in Antarctica; steep cliffs hem in the iceberg-filled passage, which is 11 km long and just 1,600 meters wide at its narrowest point. It was first seen by the German expedition of 1873-74, but not traversed until December 1898, when the Belgica of the de Gerlache expedition passed through. De Gerlache named it for Charles Lemaire, a Belgian explorer of the Congo. The channel has since become a standard part of the itinerary for cruising in Antarctica; not only is it scenic, but the protected waters are usually as still as a lake, a rare occurrence in the storm-wracked southern seas, and the north-south traverse delivers vessels close to Pleneau and Petermann Islands for landings. The principal difficulty is that icebergs may fill the channel, especially in early season, obliging a ship to backtrack and go around the outside of Booth Island in order to reach both Pleneau and Petermann Islands.
979-4562 - The Lindblad Expedition ship National Geographic Explorer transits Lemaire Channel in late evening light on the west side of the Antarctic peninsula in Antarctica. Lemaire Channel is a strait off Antarctica, located between the mainland's Antarctic Peninsula and Booth Island. It is one of the top tourist destinations in Antarctica; steep cliffs hem in the iceberg-filled passage, which is 11 km long and just 1,600 meters wide at its narrowest point. It was first seen by the German expedition of 1873-74, but not traversed until December 1898, when the Belgica of the de Gerlache expedition passed through. De Gerlache named it for Charles Lemaire, a Belgian explorer of the Congo. The channel has since become a standard part of the itinerary for cruising in Antarctica; not only is it scenic, but the protected waters are usually as still as a lake, a rare occurrence in the storm-wracked southern seas, and the north-south traverse delivers vessels close to Pleneau and Petermann Islands for landings. The principal difficulty is that icebergs may fill the channel, especially in early season, obliging a ship to backtrack and go around the outside of Booth Island in order to reach both Pleneau and Petermann Islands.
Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
979-4371 - Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) hauled out on small rocky islet just outside Ushuaia, Argentina in the Beagle Channel. The South American sea lion is perhaps the archetypal sea lion in appearance. Males have a very large head with a well developed mane making them the most lionesque of the eared seals.Males are much larger and heavier than females, reaching a length of over 2.8 meters and 350 kg while the females reach 2.2 meters and 144 kg. South American sea lions were greatly hunted in the 19th and 20th centuries. The hunting has since gone down and the species is no longer threatened and is protected in most of its range. The population estimate is 265,000 animals. They are increasing in Argentina and Chile but are declining in the Falkland Islands and Uruguay. They still are killed due the sea lions' habits of stealing fish and damaging fishing nets.
979-4769 - South American Sea Lion (Otaria flavescens) hauled out on small rocky islet just outside Ushuaia, Argentina in the Beagle Channel. The South American sea lion is perhaps the archetypal sea lion in appearance. Males have a very large head with a well developed mane making them the most lionesque of the eared seals.Males are much larger and heavier than females, reaching a length of over 2.8 meters and 350 kg while the females reach 2.2 meters and 144 kg. South American sea lions were greatly hunted in the 19th and 20th centuries. The hunting has since gone down and the species is no longer threatened and is protected in most of its range. The population estimate is 265,000 animals. They are increasing in Argentina and Chile but are declining in the Falkland Islands and Uruguay. They still are killed due the sea lions' habits of stealing fish and damaging fishing nets.
Views of Dogs Leg Fjord, an inlet 6 nautical miles (11 km) long in an east-west direction and 1.5 nautical miles (2.8 km) wide, lying directly east of Ridge Island and opening on Bourgeois Fjord, along the west coast of Graham Land. Discovered by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE), 1934-37, under Rymill, and so named because of its shape. The outline of this inlet was more accurately delineated in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under Rymill.
979-4391 - Views of Dogs Leg Fjord, an inlet 6 nautical miles (11 km) long in an east-west direction and 1.5 nautical miles (2.8 km) wide, lying directly east of Ridge Island and opening on Bourgeois Fjord, along the west coast of Graham Land. Discovered by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE), 1934-37, under Rymill, and so named because of its shape. The outline of this inlet was more accurately delineated in 1936 by the British Graham Land Expedition (BGLE) under Rymill.
An adult Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica)  in flight near the Antarctic peninsula in the southern ocean. This skua is often referred to as Antarctic Skua (or vice versa); the taxonomy of Skuas is still a matter of dispute. Other names (probably owing to the high level of hybridization in this species) include Southern Great Skua, Southern Skua or Subantarctic Skua.
979-4301 - An adult Brown Skua (Catharacta antarctica) in flight near the Antarctic peninsula in the southern ocean. This skua is often referred to as Antarctic Skua (or vice versa); the taxonomy of Skuas is still a matter of dispute. Other names (probably owing to the high level of hybridization in this species) include Southern Great Skua, Southern Skua or Subantarctic Skua.
Young southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) on the beach at South Georgia in the Southern Ocean. There is much mock-fighting among males on the beach (breeding season is actually over and the truly large bulls have left to forage). The Southern Elephant Seal is one of two species of elephant seal. It is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. While the females average about 680 kg (1,500 lb) and 3 m (10 feet) long, the bulls average around 3636 kg (8,000 lb) and 4.2 m (13 feet) long. The record bull, shot in Possession Bay, South Georgia in 1913, was 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and 6.9 m (22.5 feet) long. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals. The largest sub-population is in the South Atlantic with more than 400,000 individuals including approximately 350,000 seals in South Georgia, the other breeding colonies located on the Falkland Islands, Antarctica, and Valdes Peninsula in Argentina (the only continental breeding population). Thanks to satellite tracking, it was found that the animals spend very little time on the surface, usually a few minutes for oxygen. They dive repeatedly, each time for more than twenty minutes, to hunt their prey; squid and fish, between 400 and 1000 m deep. The diving records were recorded in nearly two hours for the duration and more than 1400 m in depth.
979-4644 - Young southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) on the beach at South Georgia in the Southern Ocean. There is much mock-fighting among males on the beach (breeding season is actually over and the truly large bulls have left to forage). The Southern Elephant Seal is one of two species of elephant seal. It is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. While the females average about 680 kg (1,500 lb) and 3 m (10 feet) long, the bulls average around 3636 kg (8,000 lb) and 4.2 m (13 feet) long. The record bull, shot in Possession Bay, South Georgia in 1913, was 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and 6.9 m (22.5 feet) long. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals. The largest sub-population is in the South Atlantic with more than 400,000 individuals including approximately 350,000 seals in South Georgia, the other breeding colonies located on the Falkland Islands, Antarctica, and Valdes Peninsula in Argentina (the only continental breeding population). Thanks to satellite tracking, it was found that the animals spend very little time on the surface, usually a few minutes for oxygen. They dive repeatedly, each time for more than twenty minutes, to hunt their prey; squid and fish, between 400 and 1000 m deep. The diving records were recorded in nearly two hours for the duration and more than 1400 m in depth.
Gentoo penguin parent (Pygoscelis papua) with chicks in Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFOThe gentoo penguin is the third largest of all penguins worldwide, with adult gentoos reach a height of 51 to 90 cm (20-36 in).There are an estimated 80,000 breeding gentoo penguin pairs in the Antarctic peninsula area with a total population estimate of around 314,000 breeding pairs in all of Antarctica. Gentoo penguins are listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List.
979-7752 - Gentoo penguin parent (Pygoscelis papua) with chicks in Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFOThe gentoo penguin is the third largest of all penguins worldwide, with adult gentoos reach a height of 51 to 90 cm (20-36 in).There are an estimated 80,000 breeding gentoo penguin pairs in the Antarctic peninsula area with a total population estimate of around 314,000 breeding pairs in all of Antarctica. Gentoo penguins are listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List.
Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
979-4848 - Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
979-4382 - Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
979-4827 - Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) near the Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica.
The Lindblad Expeditions ship National Geographic Explorer pushes through ice in Crystal Sound, south of the Antarctic Circle. This area is full of flat first year sea ice, well developed icebergs, with many open leads.
979-4328 - The Lindblad Expeditions ship National Geographic Explorer pushes through ice in Crystal Sound, south of the Antarctic Circle. This area is full of flat first year sea ice, well developed icebergs, with many open leads.
Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
979-4361 - Views of Deception Island, an island in the South Shetland Islands off the Antarctic Peninsula which has one of the safest harbours in Antarctica. A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there. The only current research bases are run by the Argentine Army and Spain. The island, located at 62857'S 60836'W, is approximately circular with a diameter of about 12 km (7 mi). Its highest point, Mt Pond, has an elevation of 542 m (1778 ft), and over half the island is covered by glaciers. The centre of the island is a caldera formed in a huge eruption which has been flooded by the sea to form a large bay named Port Foster, about 9 km (5.5 mi) long and 6 km (3.6 mi) wide. The bay has a narrow entrance, just 230 m (754 ft) wide, called Neptune's Bellows. Adding to the hazard is Ravn Rock, which lies 2.5 m (8 ft) below the water in the middle of the channel. Just inside Neptune's Bellows lies the cove Whalers' Bay, which is bordered by a large black sand beach. Since the early 19th century Deception Island was a favourite refuge from the storms and icebergs of Antarctica. It was first used by sealers, then in 1906 a Norwegian-Chilean whaling company started using Whalers' Bay as a base for a factory ship, the Gobernador Bories. Other whaling operations followed suit, and by 1914 there were 13 factory ships based there. On February 3, 1944 the British established a permanent base on Deception Island as part of Operation Tabarin, and occupied it until December 5, 1967, when a volcanic eruption forced a temporary withdrawal. It was used again between December 4, 1968 and February 23, 1969, when further volcanic activity caused it to be abandoned.
Views of Stromness Whaling Station at 5489'S 6841'W. This is a former whaling station on the northern coast of South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. Its historical significance is that it represents the destination of Ernest Shackleton's epic rescue journey in 1916. In 1907 a "floating factory" was erected in Stromness Harbour; the land station being built in 1912. Stromness operated as a whaling station from 1912 until 1931. In 1931 it was converted into a ship repair yard with a machine shop and a foundry. It remained operational until 1961 when the site was abandoned. In 1916, Ernest Shackleton and a small crew landed on the unpopulated southern coast of South Georgia at King Haakon Bay after an arduous sea voyage from Elephant Island in the 22-foot lifeboat James Caird. Shackleton along with Tom Crean and Frank Worsley then trekked across South Georgia's mountainous and glaciated interior in an effort to reach help on the populated northern shore of the island. After 36 hours of crossing the interior they arrived at the Stromness administration center which also was the home of the Norwegian whaling station's manager. All men were rescued from Elephant Island. In the decades following its closure, Stromness has been subject to damage from the elements and many of its buildings have been reduced to ruins. Outside of Stromness is a small whalers' cemetery with 14 grave markers.
979-4986 - Views of Stromness Whaling Station at 5489'S 6841'W. This is a former whaling station on the northern coast of South Georgia Island in the Southern Ocean. Its historical significance is that it represents the destination of Ernest Shackleton's epic rescue journey in 1916. In 1907 a "floating factory" was erected in Stromness Harbour; the land station being built in 1912. Stromness operated as a whaling station from 1912 until 1931. In 1931 it was converted into a ship repair yard with a machine shop and a foundry. It remained operational until 1961 when the site was abandoned. In 1916, Ernest Shackleton and a small crew landed on the unpopulated southern coast of South Georgia at King Haakon Bay after an arduous sea voyage from Elephant Island in the 22-foot lifeboat James Caird. Shackleton along with Tom Crean and Frank Worsley then trekked across South Georgia's mountainous and glaciated interior in an effort to reach help on the populated northern shore of the island. After 36 hours of crossing the interior they arrived at the Stromness administration center which also was the home of the Norwegian whaling station's manager. All men were rescued from Elephant Island. In the decades following its closure, Stromness has been subject to damage from the elements and many of its buildings have been reduced to ruins. Outside of Stromness is a small whalers' cemetery with 14 grave markers.
Young southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) on the beach at South Georgia in the Southern Ocean. There is much mock-fighting among males on the beach (breeding season is actually over and the truly large bulls have left to forage). The Southern Elephant Seal is one of two species of elephant seal. It is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. While the females average about 680 kg (1,500 lb) and 3 m (10 feet) long, the bulls average around 3636 kg (8,000 lb) and 4.2 m (13 feet) long. The record bull, shot in Possession Bay, South Georgia in 1913, was 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and 6.9 m (22.5 feet) long. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals. The largest sub-population is in the South Atlantic with more than 400,000 individuals including approximately 350,000 seals in South Georgia, the other breeding colonies located on the Falkland Islands, Antarctica, and Valdes Peninsula in Argentina (the only continental breeding population). Thanks to satellite tracking, it was found that the animals spend very little time on the surface, usually a few minutes for oxygen. They dive repeatedly, each time for more than twenty minutes, to hunt their prey; squid and fish, between 400 and 1000 m deep. The diving records were recorded in nearly two hours for the duration and more than 1400 m in depth.
979-4635 - Young southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) on the beach at South Georgia in the Southern Ocean. There is much mock-fighting among males on the beach (breeding season is actually over and the truly large bulls have left to forage). The Southern Elephant Seal is one of two species of elephant seal. It is not only the most massive pinniped but also the largest member of the order Carnivora to ever live. The seal gets its name from its great size and the large proboscis of the adult males, which is used in making extraordinarily loud roaring noises, especially during the mating season. There is a great sexual dimorphism in size, with the males much larger than the females. While the females average about 680 kg (1,500 lb) and 3 m (10 feet) long, the bulls average around 3636 kg (8,000 lb) and 4.2 m (13 feet) long. The record bull, shot in Possession Bay, South Georgia in 1913, was 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) and 6.9 m (22.5 feet) long. The world's population is approximately 650,000 animals. The largest sub-population is in the South Atlantic with more than 400,000 individuals including approximately 350,000 seals in South Georgia, the other breeding colonies located on the Falkland Islands, Antarctica, and Valdes Peninsula in Argentina (the only continental breeding population). Thanks to satellite tracking, it was found that the animals spend very little time on the surface, usually a few minutes for oxygen. They dive repeatedly, each time for more than twenty minutes, to hunt their prey; squid and fish, between 400 and 1000 m deep. The diving records were recorded in nearly two hours for the duration and more than 1400 m in depth.
Gentoo penguin parent (Pygoscelis papua) with chicks in Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFOThe gentoo penguin is the third largest of all penguins worldwide, with adult gentoos reach a height of 51 to 90 cm (20-36 in).There are an estimated 80,000 breeding gentoo penguin pairs in the Antarctic peninsula area with a total population estimate of around 314,000 breeding pairs in all of Antarctica. Gentoo penguins are listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List.
979-7749 - Gentoo penguin parent (Pygoscelis papua) with chicks in Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFOThe gentoo penguin is the third largest of all penguins worldwide, with adult gentoos reach a height of 51 to 90 cm (20-36 in).There are an estimated 80,000 breeding gentoo penguin pairs in the Antarctic peninsula area with a total population estimate of around 314,000 breeding pairs in all of Antarctica. Gentoo penguins are listed as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List.
Guests from the Lindblad Expedition ship National Geographic Explorer lay in the relatively warm waters of the caldera at Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there.
979-7912 - Guests from the Lindblad Expedition ship National Geographic Explorer lay in the relatively warm waters of the caldera at Deception Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, Southern Ocean. MORE INFO A recently active volcano, its eruptions in 1967 and 1969 caused serious damage to the scientific stations there.